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フリガナパーラー ダニエル
ローマ字PALLER Daniel L
氏名PALLER, Daniel L.
メールdlpaller@kinjo-u.ac.jp
学位Master of Arts, TESOL Bachelor of Arts, Asian Studies 
所属文学部 / 英語英米文化学科
職名准教授
所属学会American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) The Japan Association for Language Teachers (JALT) JALT Pragmatics Special Interest Group JALT Computer Assisted Language Learning Special Interest Group 
専門分野言語学 教育学 文化人類学   
研究課題Policy vs. Practice: English Education Policy Implementation in Japan   

学会及び社会における活動等

開始年月 活動内容 終了年月
2011年 1月 Japan Association for Language Teachers (JALT), Member 現在に至る
2012年 1月 JALT Pragmatics Special Interest Group, Member 現在に至る
2013年 3月 JALT2013 Conference Associate Program Chair 2013年10月迄
2013年 4月 Teachers College Columbia University Japan Alumni Association Membership Coordinator 2014年 7月迄
2013年10月 American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Member 2019年10月迄
2013年11月 JALT2014 Conference Program Chair 2014年11月迄
2014年 1月 JALT Teacher Education & Development Special Interest Group, Member 2020年12月迄
2014年 8月 Teachers College Columbia University Japan Alumni Association Program Coordinator 2015年 7月迄
2014年11月 JALT2015 Conference Program Chair 2015年11月迄
2018年11月 JALT2019 Conference Local Intern Coordinator 2019年11月迄
2019年 2月 JALT Annual International Conference Abstract Reader 現在に至る
2021年 1月 JALT Computer Assisted Language Learning Special Interest Group, Member 現在に至る
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受賞歴

受賞年月 受賞名
2003年 Asian Studies Gaylord Prize, Colorado College
2003年 Dean's Advisory Committee Venture Grant, Colorado College
2003年 President's Fund for Special Projects, Colorado College
2004年 Japanese Language Award, Colorado College
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著書

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学術論文

著書名 単著、
共著の別
出版年月 発行所・発表雑誌等 概要
Language-in-education policies and MEXT-approved EFL textbooks in the new Course of Study. 共著 2013年12月 Between the Keys, 21(2), 27-31. This paper gives a synopsis of "MEXT-approved EFL textbooks & the Course of Study", which was presented at JALT2013 International Conference. Kobe, Japan. (with G.P. Glasgow)
MEXT-approved EFL textbooks and the new Course of Study for Foreign Languages. 共著 2014年 8月 JALT2013 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT. The new Course of Study for Foreign Languages in senior high schools has been in effect since April 2013, yet little has been reported about the implementation process thus far. In particular, no studies have examined the nature of the textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for use in the new curriculum. Taking into consideration new perspectives on materials development in language-in-education policy and planning (Kennedy & Tomlinson, 2013), in this exploratory study we attempted to discern how the ministry-approved textbooks have interpreted the new curriculum objectives. It was found that even though MEXT has approved the content in the new textbooks, there are still notable discrepancies between textbook activities and national curriculum goals. (with G.P. Glasgow)
Fluency Practice on Mobile Phones: Implementing a Recording System and Following Students’ Response. 共著 2015年 5月 金城学院大学論集・人文科学編, 11(2), 69-76. This study explores the perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of two approaches towards an out of class speaking and fluency activity. Surveys and interviews were used to measure both teachers’ and students’ attitudes and perceptions regarding each system. Our findings and also offer practical advice for teachers considering a similar approach were discussed during the presentation. (with D. Sweetlove, K. Kato, & M. Taylor)
English language education policy in Japan: At a crossroads. 共著 2016年 1月 In R. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), English education policy in Asia. (pp. 153-180). New York: Springer. This chapter discusses the language education policy initiatives in Japan: such as “The Action Plan to Cultivate Japanese with English Abilities” launched in 2003, the implementation of “Foreign Language Activities” in elementary schools in 2011, the “Global 30” Project in higher education to promote English-medium learning, and the 2013 implementation of the revised national senior high school foreign language curriculum are all efforts initiated by the Japanese government to improve ELT practice. We argue that the central agents of English language education policy in Japan - the teachers – are often left to their own devices to interpret and deliver policy initiatives that themselves may have conflicting messages, and may not provide teachers with specific educational tools to engage in meaningful, substantive pedagogical change. (with G.P. Glasgow)
Research-informed materials for teaching pragmatics: The case of agreement and disagreement in English 共著 2016年 6月 In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), SLA Research and Materials Development for Language Learning (pp. 87-102). London: Routledge 本章は語用論を主眼として第二言語習得、特に学習者の語用論習得の発達について議論する。すでに商品化された英語教材について、非現実的な状況設定やモデルとして提示される表現が限定的である点についてしばしば批判がなされてきた。更にこれらの教材には、状況に応じた言語使用についての分析を促すような活動が不足している。本章では、これらの点について再び言及するよりも、むしろ言語指導、教材開発、第二言語習得研究に携わる人々を対象に、既存の教材の中でも第二言語習得研究理論に沿っている教材や研究に基づいて開発された教材に注視することを目的とする。幾つかの教科書における同意・反対表現の取り上げ方を例にこれらの点について言及することにより、理論・研究・実践を結びつけるような、教授法に重きをおいた語用論研究の重要性について強調したい。同時に、語用論的能力の伸長を目的とした能動的言語学習のために、これらの教材のさらなる活用方法を批判的な視点で探求する。(with N. Ishihara).
Keeping the conversation going: Students’ use of conversation strategies. 単著 2018年 9月 金城学院大学論集・人文科学編, 15(1), 36-46. Having a conversation and communicating with others is an essential part of language learning (Wong & Waring, 2010). Since exchanging ideas and information involves interacting with others, some language learners may lack confidence due to their grammar and/or vocabulary knowledge. Nevertheless, some of these learners can flourish during conversations by using different conversation strategies (CSs).Through Conversation Analysis, this paper investigates students' use of conversation strategies in a free talk exercise. Findings show that students use conversation strategies but are limited to a select few, thus the need for instruction.
Agents of change or products of compromise? How Japanese senior high school EFL textbooks (mis)represent foreign language curriculum reform. 共著 2019年12月 In D. Tatsuki (Ed.). Language Policy, Innovations and Practices: A Tale of Two Countries (pp.55-77). Journal of Research Institute, 59, Kobe: Kobe City University of Foreign Studies. One key issue in materials development and language-in-education policy (LEP) that has received little attention in the research literature is the degree to which content and activities of textbooks represent proposed reforms in English education curricula. Conceptualizing language policy as recontextualization through texts and discourses (Johnson, 2011), the current study explores the tension between curriculum and materials planning in a Japanese high school EFL subject. It determines the extent to which the subject’s goals objectives are reflected in the content and activities of its textbooks. Findings revealed inconsistencies in translation of reform objectives into activities across several textbooks, which may have implications in terms of consistency in curriculum delivery. (with G.P. Glasgow).
Teachers' Beliefs and Assessment in Japan: Review of the Literature. 単著 2020年 9月 金城学院大学論集・人文科学編, 17(1), 100-122. This paper examines EFL teachers’ assessment practices in senior high schools in Japan in regards to the 2009 Course of Study revision, as well as their beliefs towards assessment and the Teaching English in English initiative. It specifically explores the literature in three areas of concern: (1) language teacher cognition and teacher agency when implementing policy; (2) language assessment and language teachers’ assessment practices; and (3) teaching EFL in Japan, particularly language-in-education policy enactment.
Pragmatic-Awareness Gaining Activities: Closing the Conversation 単著 2021年 3月 金城学院大学論集・人文科学編, 17(2) This paper is based on an action research project. Specifically, it discusses the teaching of pragmatic -awareness gaining activities and how students acquire pragmatic competence.
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学会発表

題目/演目名等 発表年月 発表学会名等 概要
Preparing for Change: A Planned Approach to Classroom Innovation 2011年10月 ETJ Language Expo. Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on theories of planned behavior from social psychology, the presenters show how they examined a variety of contextual variables to develop ambitious, yet realistic, plans for pedagogical innovation. Plans include the development of extensive reading and pronunciation programs as well as communicative-based TOEIC and elementary school courses. (with G. Myskow, A. Verla, J. Thomas & J. Garrett)
Pedagogical Innovation: CLT for the TOEIC Test. 2011年11月 Guest Lecturer in A&HT5301 - Specialised Practicum: Integrated Skills. Tokyo: Teachers College, Columbia University. This lecturer discussed how to make the TOEIC classroom more communicative.
The Role of Writing in the Senior High School English Expression 1 Course 2013年 2月 Guest Lecturer in A&HT4179 - TESOL Methodologies: Teaching Writing. Tokyo: Teachers College, Columbia University. This lecture discussed "How writing is seen in Japanese senior high school textbooks."
Pecha Kucha for TC: Transformative moments as students/teachers. 2013年 6月 EFL Teacher Journeys Conference. Tokyo, Japan. This is a pecha kucha style collection of presentations from Teachers College Tokyo alumni sharing their memories of the courses that transformed them the most as teachers. Each of presenters will have an automatically timed slideshow (20 sec. per slide x 20 slides) with images that illustrate the impact TC had on their lives.
MEXT-approved EFL textbooks & the Course of Study. 2013年10月 JALT2013 International Conference. Kobe, Japan. This presentation highlights how MEXT-approved senior high school English textbooks have interpreted and translated the goals of the new Course of Study. It compares the newly released textbooks with those from the previous Course of Study in order to contrast the degree to which they align with curriculum objectives. The presenters will also discuss ways for teachers to approach textbook selection and materials development in their schools to negotiate the objectives of the new curriculum. (with G.P. Glasgow)
Moving to mobiles and moodle for student recording. 2013年10月 JALT2013 International Conference. Kobe, Japan. This study attempts to unite the digital divide among teachers and students in ELT by investigating the merits and demerits of digital and analog based approaches to an out of class partner recording activity. It also examines teacher and learner perceptions of the two systems. The presenters will offer examples of how to implement the systems as well as discuss key findings of the research project. (with K. Kato, D. Sweetlove, & R. Naghsh)
Moving forward with student conversation recording from cassettes to mobiles and moodle. 2014年 2月 10th CamTESOL Conference. Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The current study explores the perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of two approaches towards an out of class speaking and fluency activity. Surveys and interviews were used to measure both teachers’ and students’ attitudes and perceptions regarding each system. Our findings and also offer practical advice for teachers considering a similar approach were discussed during the presentation. (with D. Sweetlove & K. Kato)
Education in Japan: Recent Developments in Foreign Language Learning & Teaching. 2014年 3月 Guest Lecture for the Asian Studies Program. Colorado Springs: Colorado College. This lecture discusses initiatives promoting the development of practical communicative skills in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) by MEXT in Japan, such as The Action Plan to Cultivate Japanese with English Abilities in 2003, the implementation of the “Foreign Language Activities” curriculum in elementary schools in 2011, the “Global 30” Project in higher education in 2009 and initiatives to conduct EFL classes in English in senior high schools in 2013. These serve as examples of innovation focussing on the improvement of students' command of English and their exposure to foreign cultures.
Navigating Japan’s new national curriculum: Native and nonnative teachers caught in between roles. 2014年 3月 American Association for Applied Linguistics 2014 Conference. Portland, OR, USA. This presentation explores the NNEST/NEST dichotomy through language-in-education policy. It will investigate how teachers’ perceptions of Japan’s new foreign language curriculum for senior high schools are influenced by their own beliefs and opinions concerning native and nonnative teachers. Variables that influence teachers’ perceptions and pedagogy will be discussed. (with K. Kato & G.P. Glasgow)
Coherence in language-in-education policy in Japan – Materials and curriculum policies. 2014年10月 International Conference on Language Studies 2014. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. This presentation focuses on a mixed-method textbook analysis that examines ministry-approved first- and second-year senior high schools textbooks from the new curriculum. This study highlights the challenges that arise in ensuring congruence between published teaching materials and the intended goals of MEXT in language-in-education policy. The findings and implications in regards to materials development and coherence in language-in-education policy will be discussed.
Pragmatic information in MEXT-approved textbooks. 2014年11月 JALT2014 International Conference. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. The new Course of Study for Foreign Languages in senior high schools continues to emphasize communicative ability as a cornerstone of its curriculum, with the teaching of language functions through language-use situations. This presentation examines the degree to which current top-selling MEXT-approved senior high school English textbooks contain pragmatic input to increase the students’ functional knowledge and pragmatic awareness. Implications with respect to materials development in language-in-education policy will be discussed. (with G.P. Glasgow)
Japanese teachers beliefs and perceptions of Ministry-approved EFL Textbooks 2015年 3月 11th CamTESOL Conference. Phnom Penh, Cambodia Teachers make classroom decisions based on their teacher cognition, which consists of schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, and classroom practice including practice teaching (Borg, 2003). LPP enactment in Japan has been problematic due to teacher cognition specifically relating to the university entrance exams, language teaching methodology, and textbook use. Little research has been done on teacher cognition and textbook usage. The latest foreign language curriculum began implementation in senior high schools throughout Japan, by the MEXT in April 2013. This curriculum emphasizes the integrated use of the four skills as well as teaching EFL classes in English. Although, the new curriculum policy promotes communication (MEXT, 2011), the new textbooks still emphasize grammar, vocabulary acquisition, and reading (Glasgow & Paller, 2014). This study explores the language policy in Japan through its teachers from both a policy and language teacher cognition perspective.
Pragmatic information in textbooks: Do they develop pragmatic competence? 2016年 2月 12th CamTESOL Conference, Phnom Penh, Cambodia English language textbooks have been criticized for not being adequately informed by research in SLA (Tomlinson, 2013). This is also true in the area of pragmatics. For instance, conversations found in ELT textbooks tend not to represent natural and authentic conversations and language (Bardovi-Harlig, Hartford, Mahan-Tayor, Morgans, & Reynolds, 1991; Grant & Sparks, 2001; Vellenga, 2004). Nevertheless, there is an increase of pragmatically-focused materials. There is a need for an increase in these textbooks as many national curriculums across the globe call for language-use situations and functions to be incorporated in English classes, this study analyses the content of commercially produced textbooks for their pragmatic input as well as the degree to which meta-pragmatic information is available in the textbooks.
Teachers’ negotiation of language policy in Japan 2016年11月 JALT2016: 42nd Annual International Conference. Nagoya, Aichi, Japan Senior high school English teachers in Japan have been implementing the most recent Course of Study for Foreign Languages since April 2013. However, discrepancies persist between the objectives of the curriculum policy, which promotes communication (MEXT, 2011), and teaching is still significantly affected by the washback of the university entrance exams. Applying Borg’s (2003) language teacher cognition framework, this study explores how teachers see their agency in the current curriculum, specifically relating to the university entrance exams, language teaching methodology, and textbook use. Surveys were sent to teachers to determine their beliefs and attitudes towards both the textbooks and curriculum. Viewing curriculum change through an LTC framework, the findings of this study suggest continued tensions between teachers’ cognitions, textbook content, and the pervasive impact of university entrance exams on teachers’ agency in implementing language education policy reform.
Language-in-education policy in Japan: Teacher beliefs, reactions, and ministry-approved textbooks 2017年10月 2017 KoreaTESOL International Conference, Seoul, South Korea. This study explores how high school English teachers in Japan see their agency in the national foreign language curriculum, specifically relating to the university entrance exams, language teaching methodology, and textbook use. Data was collected through teacher surveys and a tabulation of activities in textbooks. Viewing curriculum change through a language teacher cognition framework, the findings of this study suggest continued tensions between teachers’ cognitions, textbook content, and the pervasive impact of university entrance exams on teachers’ agency in implementing language education policy reform. The implications of these tensions will be discussed and explored in detail.
Materials development and language-in-education policy in Japanese senior high schools. 2017年10月 Kanazawa Seiryo University International Day Conference, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan. Since April 2013, the most recent form of Japan’s curriculum policy for foreign languages was rolled out by MEXT through the Course of Study for Foreign Languages. The curriculum has called for English classes to be taught in English, more integration of the four micro skills, as well as enhancing learners’ critical thinking skills. Additionally, newly published and MEXT-approved textbooks were produced and implemented. Conversely, previous researchers (Kobayakawa, 2011; McGroarty & Taguchi, 2005; Ogura, 2008) found that ministry-approved textbooks have lacked opportunities for learners to produce language through communicative activities. The textbook portrays an integral function in the translation of policy objectives into classroom practices. This mixed-methods analysis of ministry-approved textbooks for the 2013 curriculum, emphasizes the difficulties that arise when enacting the intended MEXT policy objectives versus the contents of the language learning textbooks.
An analysis of students’ use of conversation strategies. 2019年 2月 15th Annual CamTESOL Conference, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This study aimed to explore students’ use of conversation strategies during a classroom fluency activity and in turn to understand which conversation strategies students might need further instruction with. An analysis of students’ speech was performed through conversation analysis transcription to determine which CSs were being used during the conversation, by comparing to Dörnyei’s (1995) conception of CSs. Due to the quality of recordings and time, only two five-minute conversations were analyzed. Surprisingly, students only used six of the twelve CSs, which shows that the remaining CSs could further be taught during class time. Findings and suggestions towards the teaching of conversation as well as conversation analysis usage by learners will be discussed.
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